Yep, this should be no problem. Im not famliar with OSX and how it handles android phones, but it should just be a matter of connecting the phone via usb, (it should show up like a drive or device where you can browse through its folder structure), locating the folder where the music is stored on you phone (you can try doing a search for one of the file names in Sherlock or whatever the search feature is called in OSX) and then copying them over to you mac's hd.
If the phone doesn't show up when you connect it, you may have to download the drivers for your phone from its mfg's site.
if you actually want to manage your music on you phone using itune's sync, that might require some extra setup. This article talks about it:
just a waring though: backup everything before letting itunes sync: its famous for screwing thin s up.
Yes, should show up in the finder as some type of device. Some phones seem to be recognized as a phone, some as a removable drive, and some as a camera. Either way you should be able to open it up and browse though the folder structure. or search it for the song name to see where they are stored.
Some phones are kinda goofy and you need to enable drive mode or use as a mass storage device aka put them in "file transfer mode". Other phones, like my samsung, come with an app that lets you transfer files over wifi just by entering and address into the browser on your computer. You should be able to find out more of the specific details for you particular phone by doing a good search for something like "nameofyourphonemake&model transfer files to mac."